The real dimension of Freud's "man of rats" case
Mis à jour : 23 août 2020
The real dimension of the case of "man of rats" such as Freud describes it in « five psychoanalysis » Freud introduces the case of " man of rats " by these words: " remarks on a case of obsessive neurosis ". let us begin by taking back the elements he gives us on the symptomatic manifestations of the neurosis of this patient who seemed to him in Suffer quite seriously, but he also tells us to have heals over a year of analytical sessions. I - a case of obsessive neurosis
Marie-Claude Chauviré, in a text published in access no. 4 writes that it is only with the description of the case of man to rats that the structure of the obsession is specifies: it implies a precise thought followed or not of training Reaction, such as cancellation, denial, doubt. "an obsessive neurosis" presupposes a well-elaborate thought that the subject feels as a foreign, parasite and coming in contradiction with his me and his ideals. " 1 / the apprehension
We can find in Freud's text what he isolate from the main symptomatic training : the apprehension that there is something terrible to a lady he loves, and to his father. This apprehension takes the form of a fear that these two people do not die. Later, Freud learns that the father of this patient is dead, but that this fear continues to inhabit his patient anyway.
2 / the impulse to see naked women
This apprehension is linked to the impulse of seeing naked women who like him, what he knew very early in his childhood, while women of his household, housekeeper, stove, gave him access to their nudity and body contact. In addition, this impulse had probably succeeded in a desire to know about the sexuality of his women who would probably be in a conversation that he heard and during which they imagined bluntly, in their words, sexual relationships Possible or not with the young children they were working on. Humiliated himself by a word of one of these women due to his supposed too big clumsy at the time of such an act, Freud's patient receives from another woman both the meaning of the law: " Lina tried to Comfort me - [he said to Freud] and told me that a maid who had done this with a little boy who was entrusted to him had been put in prison for several months " and probably an ambiguous message, since he himself loved Seeing and touching naked women, and that with this woman, at home, he took a lot of freedoms: "I took a lot of freedoms with her". The scene of the conversation of women heard by him followed by this word "Consolatrice" of Lina was in their diachrony and in their succession both a rather complex message, and consolation could only play the role, on the side of women, From an attempt at atonement for their own account. There was both unbridled sexuality, manly humiliation, guilt of the reports that the patient had with women of the house, emotional consolation, meaning of the law, evocation of such a break to this one, fault implicitly recognized, and can - being overcompensation in the free relationship to this woman. What was allowed to him enter the culprit's domain and was covered with a word supposed to make humiliation forget while giving him access to free activities with this woman named Lina. Everything was covered. Freud: " we see this child under the empire of a component of sexual instinct, the voyeurism (...) the desire to see naked of the women who like him. This desire corresponds to the later obsession. And if this desire does not yet have the obsessive character, it is that the me of the child is not yet in complete contradiction with this desire, do not feel it yet as a stranger to himself. However, it is already somewhere an opposition to this desire, since a painful affect regularly accompanies its appearance. It is obvious that there is in the soul of this little sensual a conflict. " this conflict, " sense of apprehension haunting " he expresses it then in this way: " if i have the desire to see a naked woman, my father will have to die. "from there the disturbing weirdness that he feels in front of this chain that he does not explain and he rejects in his apprehension, from where" impulses to do something to divert disaster, similar impulses to the defense measures that will be day Later. " " " 3 / a anguish in front of the object?
Marie-Claude Chauviré, in access no. 4, briefly sums up the mechanism of the psychogenesis of these thoughts by which his apprehension is expressed (perhaps we can link it to a affect of anguish that I will speak later): Child that he was " punished by blows " by his father after having " committed a few mischief ". in front of this body punishment, the small, very active in this circumstance, had responded violently to insulting (with the language possibilities related At his young age, who of the blow gives us even, in a text of Freud, an illustration of what is the reports of meaning and meant - the signifiers for which he is used for these insults are very harmless and cannot be considered by An adult as commonly insulting in itself: " you lamp! You Towel! You plate ", but can express the anger of the child in the face of what he considers to be an injustice, linked to his impotence in front of an adult who punishes violently -. in front of this reaction, the father was impressed and did not beat him anymore. However, the child designed a fear in front of this reaction that was hers (fear, maybe to lose the love of the father? Let's think of the text "a child is beaten" From Freud where this fantasy is analyzed as that of the staging of a punishment that is that of other children that those that these patients were and who means to them that, they, precisely, do not Are not beaten, and are loved by the father) to the point that he "had become coward". Freud writes that this hatred for the father felt by the little child is one of the elements of the division he is subject to and whose other term Is the love he wears to him, as he wears a love to the lady of his election. We can formulate, in terms of this love, in the form of a "tender current" for the father. This current for the father and this division seems to endure in this patient beyond the death of the father, in an unexpected form since the apprehension that there is something tragic to either of those loved ones of him persists, And even in the illogical form of fear that he dies, may his father die, as a result of his urges to naked women, while his father has truly died of the years before, and that in the day life and not in a Night Dream. This subject also speaks to Freud of what he qualifies as " delusional training with weird content his parents would know his thoughts, impression he feels and explains in an attempt to rationalize that he will would them without in To be aware. The continuation of the neurosis of this subject when he is going to see Freud to talk to him about his difficulties, can take the form of a delirium of neurotic, of neurotic that Freud qualifies for "seriously reached". it happens that nowadays as well Safe, delusional formations, "real delusions" would say Jacques Lacan, are those of neurotic who can be confused by Psychiatrists with psychotic people. This case is also a paradigm. Let's stop on the love of this subject for his father. An analytic situation seems to be wearing the trace. When this patient evokes in Freud's cabinet the memory of a sensual contact with a housekeeper, in his childhood, the signifiers he uses to describe him can think that the transfer makes him put Freud in women's position and him in male position (This hypothesis is personal to me), in an analogy with the provision of this analysis compared to Freud, but reversed. He said, " one night, she was extended, slightly dressed, on a couch, reading; I was lying close to her. " to continue in this sense, the dream that he is doing towards the end of the series of his sessions with Freud, and who represents Freud's daughter with this manifest content: the thought that Freud wants him to marry his daughter, but represented with Pieces of poo in the place of the eyes (What Freud interprets in the sense of an analogy between the poo and the money for which he would marry him, and not "for his beautiful eyes") can think that love is more address To Freud, whose family would integrate the family, at the price of a wedding whose love would be absent (in French, " for his beautiful eyes " may mean " in a inauthentic way "). In this dream, it's Freud who wishes this wedding. Lacan must think about it when he proposes another interpretation, in connection with the poo, on this face that he thinks rather like the one "of the death that looks at him with his eyes of bitumen". Freud is in the position of father in this dream. Gold the request for love of this subject also addressed his own father, with the episode of body punishment that, without doubt, after the active reaction of anger linked to misunderstanding and the feeling of injustice and impotence that he feels At this time, it is reduced by a change of its character towards "cowardice". maybe we can add some passivity to it? This little boy's memories are memories of women's companies. He romanticizing the naked body of women. He is stooped in his manhood by one of her, because of his supposed clumsy. He keeps late in his life this intense love for his father: "his father being the person he cherished most in the world", writes Freud when his patient is surprised by his division which also translates to the wish that his father dies, In certain circumstances of his life. There is a link without doubt passion of the son to his father, but who is ambiguous because love has its reverse in the wish of death of this one. The Division felt during the scene of the body punishment by the father seems to have decided on the possibility of this ambivalence, whose negative affect, hatred, or the wish of death, are rejected. The intense and idealized love for the lady acts so as to "avoid the return of the repressed". Is this subject a lover of his lady whose desire for her would not be decided, because maybe he was not answered by his father to the love he wore to him? The text does not indeed mention this answer. Freud doesn't talk about it either. His Father died when he was young, relatively (at 20 years old), and his life is tainted by a fault, of a debt he could not settle: " (...) the father was sub-Officer (...). A certain devaluation accompanies him permanently in the esteem of his contemporaries, and a mixture of bravery and shine composes him a conventional character that we find at Through the friendly man described by the subject. " " " And, add lacan: " the father has had, during his military career, what can be called in terms of trouble. It has not done any more than to squander the funds of the regiment, which it was depositary for its functions. And he must not have his honor, or even his life, at least in the sense of his career, of the figure that he can continue to do in society, than to the intervention of a friend, who lent him the sum that he It was appropriate to pay back, and who is thus to have been his savior. We're still talking about this moment as a really important and significant episode of the paternal past. (...) he never found the friend (...) He was never able to repay his debt. " " " Debt is one of the problems of this subject, around which it builds its "delusional" assumptions when it must in turn to settle one, the one of the price of a lorgnette. In addition, his father married his wife for his money, although he would put another one, poor, which is not necessarily a position position. It is not the choice in love that the subject does, which does not exempt it from difficulties that it expresses in terms of problems related to its condition of student without professional situation, which makes it delay the marriage. And the two loves for these two people who are the most expensive are linked in this neurosis. From all this material, a question seems legitimate to me: is the object of love of this subject rather his father? In His presence, when the lack of object is absent, the anguish seems to appear in the form of apprehension. Freud seems to perceive this aspect because he note several times the importance of this love of his patient for his father. Thus, he writes: " as his father has died for several years, this apprehension of constraint is therefore much more senseless than the first and seeks to put a moment still safe from the confession. " man in rats may not say everything to Freud in a direct way? If we are to the elaborations of Freud and lacan on mourning and its relationship to the object, we can think that the mourning of the dead father may be difficult for this patient of this fact, and also the effects of the Body punishment of which he was the object and who divided him to the point of adding doubt as an overriding trait of his emotional life (and also in his relationship to the lady he loves): "... for a long time he did not realize the fact of his death [that of his father]; he happened to him constantly, after hearing a good line of mind, to say: this, I have to tell him to My Father " And: "... when he entered a room... and although he never forgot the fact of his death, the expectation of this appearance [that of his father] of a mind was not appalling, it was Something highly wished " II - the "Original Constellation" 1 / the irreconcilable between love and sexuality
"it is the irreconcilable between love and sexuality that the subject seeks to avoid with obsession: an impossible to say that lacan will be on the side of the real in opposition to love that is based on symbolic and imagination", Written by Marie-Claude Chauviré. She adds: " this piece of real cause a symptom thought that is felt as foreign by the subject. " At "the man of rats", this irreconcilable shines through the ambivalence of his thoughts towards the father and the lady he loves. For The Father, his love is intense, but he also wishes his death, as for example in the wish that he died to be able, by legacy, to be richer and therefore marry the woman, poor, that he loves and not the one, Richer whose mother speaks to her as possible future wife. Does Lacan advance the key to this irreconcilable when he writes, in the individual myth of the neurotic that: " this father has found himself in the position of doing what is called an advantageous marriage (...). The Prestige is therefore on the side of the mother. "? Is the male position difficult to hold, which could also be shown through the additional delay before the marriage that gives it the time necessary to complete its studies as prior to this one? " but, says Freud ", writes Marie-Claude Chauviré, " we can also wonder why this intense love [for the father] had not managed to turn off hate " and he makes the hypothesis of a cause that makes her indestructible In the unconscious unconscious "by moments, like a lightning", announcing the category of the real of lacan. " " 2 / the irreconcilable of rats: the fantasy
In his relationship to enjoyment, the fantasy of the subject is sensitive to Freud: " the anguish arises for e. Lehrs [this is the name of the patient] when he hears a captain to make the story of the oriental torture of rats introduced by the anus. (...) he cannot make the story of the torture in Freud without an agitation and extreme confusion. Freud " notices on his face a complex and weird expression " that he can only " translate as " being the horror of a enjoyment by himself ignored ". The meaning " rat ", in this fantasy, returns the patient to both the terms of " game rat " (reference to the debt of the father in the game), but also to " Rate ", German word that means quote - part. He is associated with the patient to the money. The Captain's story, which arouses in the patient the opposition to corporal punishment " awakens in him the erotic erotic that had played a great role in his childhood as a result of intestinal worms. " " " Here is the analysis that lacan is doing in this case of Freud, later. " this case borrows its title (...) to a very fascinating fantasy, which has in the psychology of the crisis that brings the subject to the reach of the analyst an obvious function of antenna. This is the story of a torture (...) which consists in the sinking of a rat excited by artificial means, in the rectum of the, by the way of a more or less ingenious device. This is the first audition of this story that causes a state of fascinated horror, which not triggers its neurosis, but by updating the themes, and arouses the anguish. " " " The horror of the enjoyment "by itself ignored" that he feels to the evocation of this torture, associated with his apprehension that he is applied to the lady or the father makes him design a solution that has the appearance of a delirium when It is put to have a debt to be solved: " the original constellation that presided over the birth of the subject, to its destiny, and I would even say to its prehistory, to know the fundamental family relationships that have structured the union of his parents, there is a very precise report, and can - being definable by a formula of transformation, with what appears as the most contingent, the most fantasy, the most paradoxically morbid of his case, to know the last state of development of his great apprehension haunting, the imaginary scenario to which he manages like To the solution of the anguish linked to the trigger of the crisis. " " what is seen (...) at the overview (...) of the observation is the strict correspondence between these initial elements of the subjective constellation and the last development of the obsession obsession. (...) the image of the torture first spawned in the subject, (...) all kinds of fears, to know that this torture may be one day inflicted on the people who are the most expensive, and specifically either to This character of the woman poor idealized to which he has a love that we will see earlier the style and the own value - it is the form of love that is capable of the obsessive subject - either, more paradoxically, to his father , who is yet at this time deceased, and reduced to a character imagined in the afterlife. " " this scenario scenario presents itself as a little drama, a gesture, which is precisely the manifestation of what I call the individual myth of the neurotic. It reflects indeed (...) the inaugural relationship between the father, the mother and the character (...) of the friend. " " " " (...) it modifies it in the sense of a certain trend. On the one hand, we originally have a father's debt to the friend (...). On the other hand, there is in the story of father substitution, substitution of the woman rich to the poor woman. Gold, inside the fantasy developed by the subject, we look at something like an exchange of the terminal terms of each of these functional reports. (...) the object of desire tantalisant that about going back to the place where the lady of the post [is] a character who in the recent history of the subject embodies the poor woman, a maid of hostel... " It is likely that the modification "in the sense of a certain trend" that the patient operates in this scenario fantasy act in the goal, that lacan explicit clearly, to take the counter-foot of the father's choices (his marriage of reason with a Rich woman) and to try to fix the fault that made him a father with a social image devalued: his debt never settled towards, also, a friend. With, in addition, the passion side linked to the unjust body punishment that can probably play in the sense of an intensification of the negative affect to the father, which translates to the apprehension that the torture is applied to him, or that he Die.
Christophe Gervot, psychoanalyst, writer, translator, musician, concept artist, and trainer.
Christophe Gervot, psychanalyste à Missillac (44780), est diplômé en Lettres, Langues, Littérature et Civilisation Etrangères de l'Université Catholique de l'Ouest (UCO) et de l'Université Rennes 2. Il a été étudiant de l'Antenne Clinique d'Angers (ACA), de la Section Clinique de Nantes (SCN) et est diplômé en psychanalyse du Département de psychanalyse de l'université Paris 8. Il est également diplômé en Études européennes, option 'Politiques et Pratiques culturelles en Europe' (PPCE) de l'Institut d’Études européennes (IEE) de l'université Paris 8.
Bibliography - Chauviré M-C., "the man in rats, paradigm of the obsessive symptom", in access, bulletin of the association of the cause freudian - val de loire - Brittany, no. 4, December 2012, PP . 143-149 - Freud S., "remarks on a case of obsessive neurosis, ( the man of rats )", in five psychoanalysis, Paris, puf, 1954, PP. 194-261 - Freud S., "the man of rats", in five psychoanalysis, Paris, puf, coll. "Quadriga", 2008 - Freud S. "a child is beaten", contribution to the knowledge of the Genesis of sexual perversions (translated by d. Guérineau), Paris, puf, 1973, PP. 219-243 - Lacan J., function and field of speech and language in psychoanalysis, in written, Paris, threshold, 1966, PP. 237-322, city by Marie-Claude Anonymous in "man in rats, paradigm of the obsessive symptom", in access, bulletin of the association of the cause freudian - val de loire - Brittany, no. 4, p. 147. - Lacan J., the individual myth of the neurotic or poetry and truth in neurosis, Paris, Seuil, coll. "Paradoxes of lacan", 2007